The History of Botox
Botox or onabotulinumtoxinA contains tiny amounts of highly purified botulinum toxin protein refined from the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It was developed in the 1970’s by an ophthalmologist seeking a way to correct strabismus (crossed eyes) in his patients. He discovered that a highly purified form of this potentially lethal poison when injected in the appropriate overactive muscles caused a temporary relaxation or paralysis which allowed other eye muscles to take over normal eye function.
Allergan Inc., a small drug company at that time specializing in products for use in the fields of ophthalmology and dermatology, purchased the rights to the discovery in 1987. In 1989 Allergan, Inc. licensed botulinum toxin A for use in correcting eye muscle disorders such as blepharospasm (uncontrolled blinking) and strabismus (crossed eyes).
The Discovery of Botox for Cosmetic Use
In 1987 Dr. Jean Curruthers, an ophthalmologist noted that when injecting botulinum toxin A in patient with strabismus there was a temporary reduction in the appearance of forehead wrinkles, glabellar lines, and crow’s feet, resulting in a fresher, more youthful appearance. She and her husband Dr. Alastair Curruthers, a dermatologist published their results, leading to hundreds of clinical trials and the manufacture of Botox Cosmetic with its initial FDA approval for temporary treatment of glabellar lines in 2002. Botox Cosmetic was FDA approved for the use in lateral canthal lines (crow’s feet) in 2013 and forehead lines in 2017. When injected directly into overactive facial muscles Botox inhibits the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that causes muscles to contract. The result is relaxation or paralysis of the muscles with effects lasting 3-4 months.
The use of Botox treatments to temporarily relax or eradicate wrinkles and frown lines on the forehead and around the eyes is currently a billion dollar industry and the most popular cosmetic treatment in North America and Europe today.
Glabellar Lines (11’s)
Lateral Canthal Lines (Crow’s Feet)
The ideal candidates for Botox treatment are healthy men and women over 18 years of age who suffer from the early signs of aging. Adults in their 20’s, 30’s, 40’s and 50’s can benefit the most from treatment with Botox. It is important for candidates to have realistic expectations of the results. Patients with severe wrinkles at rest may not achieve a satisfactory result with Botox, for these patients laser treatment or dermal fillers may be more appropriate.
Results of Treatment
You will start to see results in 4-7 days with full effect in 2 weeks. Results will last for 3-4 months. If you do not continue with Botox treatments your wrinkles will revert back to their previous appearance. Treatments last from 10-20 minutes depending on how many areas are being injected.
Potential Adverse Reactions
Botox Cosmetics may cause serious side effects that can be life threatening. Get medical attention immediately if you have any of these problems any time (hours to weeks) after injection.
- Problems swallowing, speaking, or breathing due to weakening of associated muscles can be severe and result in loss of life. You are at the highest risk if these problems are preexisting before injection.
- Spread of toxin effects. The effect of botulinum toxin may affect areas away from the injection site and cause serious symptoms including: loss of strength and all over muscle weakness, double vision, blurry vision, drooping eyelids or brows, hoarseness or change or loss of voice, trouble saying words clearly, loss of bladder control, trouble breathing, and trouble swallowing.
- Serious and or immediate allergic reactions have been reported they include: rash, red itchy welts, wheezing, asthma symptoms, dizziness or feeling faint. Get medical attention immediately if you are experiencing any of these symptoms.
- Other risks include transient headache, swelling, bruising, pain during the injection, twitching, itching, numbness, asymmetry (unevenness), temporary drooping of the eyelids or eyebrows, blindness, death, allergic reaction, arrhythmia, MI. In a small number of individuals, the injection does not work as satisfactorily or for as long as usual.
Candidates should not be suffering from conditions such as myasthenia gravis, ALS (Lou Gehrig Disease) or Lambert-Eaton Syndrome, be pregnant or breastfeeding or trying to become pregnant in the near future as the effects of Botox on the unborn child are unknown.
Patients on anticoagulant and anti-platelet medication will bruise more than normally expected.
The popularity of Botox cosmetic is due to its non-surgical nature, little to no recovery time, its effectiveness, and its relatively low cost compared to surgical face lifts or other procedures. Its safety is also an important factor. Botox has been widely used for more than 15 years and there have been no documented systemic complications associated with Botox injections when administered by qualified medical personnel in accordance with the recommended dosage and guidelines.
Understand that there may be a higher possibility of side effects if you do not follow certain instructions. Adhere to these instructions for at least 4-8 hours from the time of treatment.
Do not lie down or bend forward for extended periods of time for at least 4-8 hours from time of treatment.
Do not manipulate or massage the treated area for at least 4-8 hours after the treatment.
If you develop redness or swelling to the treatment area, apply ice for 20-30 minutes 3-4 times that day. Do not put ice directly on skin, place a cloth over skin and apply ice over the cloth.
BOTOX® Cosmetic (onabotulinumtoxinA) is indicated in adult patients for the temporary improvement in the appearance of:
– moderate to severe glabellar lines associated with corrugator and/or procerus muscle activity
– moderate to severe lateral canthal lines associated with orbicularis oculi activity
– moderate to severe forehead lines associated with frontalis activity
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION, INCLUDING BOXED WARNING
WARNING: DISTANT SPREAD OF TOXIN EFFECT
Postmarketing reports indicate that the effects of BOTOX® Cosmetic and all botulinum toxin products may spread from the area of injection to produce symptoms consistent with botulinum toxin effects. These may include asthenia, generalized muscle weakness, diplopia, ptosis, dysphagia, dysphonia, dysarthria, urinary incontinence and breathing difficulties. These symptoms have been reported hours to weeks after injection. Swallowing and breathing difficulties can be life threatening and there have been reports of death. The risk of symptoms is probably greatest in children treated for spasticity but symptoms can also occur in adults treated for spasticity and other conditions, particularly in those patients who have an underlying condition that would predispose them to these symptoms. In unapproved uses, including spasticity in children, and in approved indications, cases of spread of effect have been reported at doses comparable to those used to treat cervical dystonia and spasticity and at lower doses.
BOTOX® Cosmetic is contraindicated in the presence of infection at the proposed injection site(s) and in individuals with known hypersensitivity to any botulinum toxin preparation or to any of the components in the formulation.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Lack of Interchangeability between Botulinum Toxin Products
The potency Units of BOTOX® Cosmetic are specific to the preparation and assay method utilized. They are not interchangeable with other preparations of botulinum toxin products and, therefore, units of biological activity of BOTOX® Cosmetic cannot be compared to nor converted into units of any other botulinum toxin products assessed with any other specific assay method.
Spread of Toxin Effect
Please refer to Boxed Warning for Distant Spread of Toxin Effect.
No definitive serious adverse event reports of distant spread of toxin effect associated with dermatologic use of BOTOX® Cosmetic at the labeled dose of 20 Units (for glabellar lines), 24 Units (for lateral canthal lines), 40 Units (for forehead lines with glabellar lines), 44 Units (for simultaneous treatment of lateral canthal lines and glabellar lines), and 64 Units (for simultaneous treatment of lateral canthal lines, glabellar lines, and forehead lines) have been reported.
Serious Adverse Reactions With Unapproved Use
Serious adverse reactions, including excessive weakness, dysphagia, and aspiration pneumonia, with some adverse reactions associated with fatal outcomes, have been reported in patients who received BOTOX® injections for unapproved uses. In these cases, the adverse reactions were not necessarily related to distant spread of toxin, but may have resulted from the administration of BOTOX® to the site of injection and/or adjacent structures. In several of the cases, patients had pre-existing dysphagia or other significant disabilities. There is insufficient information to identify factors associated with an increased risk for adverse reactions associated with the unapproved uses of BOTOX®. The safety and effectiveness of BOTOX® for unapproved uses have not been established.
Serious and/or immediate hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. These reactions include anaphylaxis, serum sickness, urticaria, soft-tissue edema, and dyspnea. If such reactions occur, further injection of BOTOX® Cosmetic should be discontinued and appropriate medical therapy immediately instituted. One fatal case of anaphylaxis has been reported in which lidocaine was used as the diluent and, consequently, the causal agent cannot be reliably determined.
There have been reports following administration of BOTOX® of adverse events involving the cardiovascular system, including arrhythmia and myocardial infarction, some with fatal outcomes. Some of these patients had risk factors including pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Use caution when administering to patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.
Increased Risk of Clinically Significant Effects with Pre-existing Neuromuscular Disorders
Individuals with peripheral motor neuropathic diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or neuromuscular junction disorders (eg, myasthenia gravis or Lambert-Eaton syndrome) should be monitored when given botulinum toxin. Patients with neuromuscular disorders may be at increased risk of clinically significant effects including generalized muscle weakness, diplopia, ptosis, dysphonia, dysarthria, severe dysphagia, and respiratory compromise from onabotulinumtoxinA (see Warnings and Precautions).
Dysphagia and Breathing Difficulties
Treatment with BOTOX® and other botulinum toxin products can result in swallowing or breathing difficulties. Patients with pre-existing swallowing or breathing difficulties may be more susceptible to these complications. In most cases, this is a consequence of weakening of muscles in the area of injection that are involved in breathing or oropharyngeal muscles that control swallowing or breathing (see Boxed Warning).
Pre-existing Conditions at the Injection Site
Caution should be used when BOTOX® Cosmetic treatment is used in the presence of inflammation at the proposed injection site(s) or when excessive weakness or atrophy is present in the target muscle(s).
Human Albumin and Transmission of Viral Diseases
This product contains albumin, a derivative of human blood. Based on effective donor screening and product manufacturing processes, it carries an extremely remote risk for transmission of viral diseases and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). There is a theoretical risk for transmission of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), but if that risk actually exists, the risk of transmission would also be considered extremely remote. No cases of transmission of viral diseases, CJD or vCJD have ever been identified for licensed albumin or albumin contained in other licensed products.
The most frequently reported adverse reaction following injection of BOTOX® Cosmetic for glabellar lines was eyelid ptosis (3%).
The most frequently reported adverse reaction following injection of BOTOX® Cosmetic for lateral canthal lines was eyelid edema (1%).
The most frequently reported adverse reactions following injection of BOTOX® Cosmetic for forehead lines with glabellar lines were headache (9%), brow ptosis (2%) and eyelid ptosis (2%).
Co-administration of BOTOX® Cosmetic and aminoglycosides or other agents interfering with neuromuscular transmission (eg, curare-like compounds) should only be performed with caution as the effect of the toxin may be potentiated. Use of anticholinergic drugs after administration of BOTOX® Cosmetic may potentiate systemic anticholinergic effects.
The effect of administering different botulinum neurotoxin products at the same time or within several months of each other is unknown. Excessive neuromuscular weakness may be exacerbated by administration of another botulinum toxin prior to the resolution of the effects of a previously administered botulinum toxin.
Excessive weakness may also be exaggerated by administration of a muscle relaxant before or after administration of BOTOX® Cosmetic.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There are no studies or adequate data from postmarketing surveillance on the developmental risk associated with use of BOTOX® Cosmetic in pregnant women. There are no data on the presence of BOTOX® Cosmetic in human or animal milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production.
JUVÉDERM® Collection of Fillers Important Information
JUVÉDERM VOLUMA® XC injectable gel is indicated for deep (subcutaneous and/or supraperiosteal) injection for cheek augmentation to correct age-related volume deficit in the mid-face in adults over the age of 21.
JUVÉDERM® Ultra XC and JUVÉDERM® Ultra Plus XC injectable gels are indicated for injection into the mid-to-deep dermis for correction of moderate to severe facial wrinkles and folds (such as nasolabial folds).
JUVÉDERM VOLLURE™ XC injectable gel is indicated for injection into the mid-to-deep dermis for correction of moderate to severe facial wrinkles and folds (such as nasolabial folds) in adults over the age of 21.
JUVÉDERM® Ultra XC injectable gel is indicated for injection into the lips and perioral area for lip augmentation in adults over the age of 21.
JUVÉDERM VOLBELLA® XC injectable gel is indicated for injection into the lips for lip augmentation and for correction of perioral rhytids in adults over the age of 21.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
These products should not be used in patients who have severe allergies, marked by a history of anaphylaxis or history or presence of multiple severe allergies, and should not be used in patients with a history of allergies to Gram-positive bacterial proteins or lidocaine contained in these products.
- Do not inject into blood vessels. Introduction of these products into the vasculature may lead to embolization, occlusion of the vessels, ischemia, or infarction. Take extra care when injecting soft-tissue fillers; for example, inject the product slowly and apply the least amount of pressure necessary. Rare, but serious, adverse events associated with the intravascular injection of soft-tissue fillers in the face have been reported and include temporary or permanent vision impairment, blindness, cerebral ischemia or cerebral hemorrhage leading to stroke, skin necrosis, and damage to underlying facial structures. Immediately stop the injection if a patient exhibits any of the following symptoms: changes in vision, signs of a stroke, blanching of the skin, unusual pain during or shortly after the procedure. Patients should receive prompt medical attention and, possibly, evaluation by an appropriate healthcare professional specialist should an intravascular injection occur
- Product use at specific sites in which an active inflammatory process (skin eruptions such as cysts, pimples, rashes, or hives) or infection is present should be deferred until the underlying process has been controlled
- In order to minimize the risk of potential complications, these products should only be used by healthcare professionals who have appropriate training, experience, and knowledge of facial anatomy
- Healthcare professionals are encouraged to discuss the potential risks of soft-tissue injections with their patients prior to treatment and ensure that patients are aware of signs and symptoms of potential complications
- The safety and effectiveness for the treatment of anatomic regions other than the mid-face with JUVÉDERM VOLUMA® XC; facial wrinkles and folds with JUVÉDERM®Ultra XC, JUVÉDERM® Ultra Plus XC, and JUVÉDERM VOLLURE™ XC; and the lips and perioral area with JUVÉDERM® Ultra XC and JUVÉDERM VOLBELLA® XC have not been established in controlled clinical studies
- As with all transcutaneous procedures, dermal filler implantation carries a risk of infection. Follow standard precautions associated with injectable materials
- The safety for use during pregnancy, in breastfeeding females, and in patients with known susceptibility to keloid formation, hypertrophic scarring, and pigmentation disorders has not been studied
- The safety for use of JUVÉDERM VOLUMA® XC in patients under 35 or over 65 years, JUVÉDERM® Ultra XC and JUVÉDERM® Ultra Plus XC in patients under 18 years, and JUVÉDERM VOLLURE™ XC and JUVÉDERM VOLBELLA® XC in patients under 22 years has not been established
- Use with caution in patients on immunosuppressive therapy
- Patients who are using products that can prolong bleeding (such as aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and warfarin) may experience increased bruising or bleeding at treatment sites
- If laser treatment, chemical peel, or any other procedure based on active dermal response is considered after treatment, or if the product is administered before the skin has healed completely, there is a possible risk of an inflammatory reaction at the treatment site
- Patients who experience skin injury near the site of implantation may be at a higher risk for adverse events
- The safety of JUVÉDERM VOLUMA® XC injectable gel for use in patients with very thin skin in the mid-face has not been established
- Patients may experience late onset nodules with use of dermal fillers, including JUVÉDERM VOLUMA® XC
- Patients may experience late onset adverse events with use of dermal fillers
The most commonly reported side effects for JUVÉDERM® injectable gels were injection-site redness, swelling, pain, tenderness, firmness, lumps/bumps, bruising, discoloration, and itching. For JUVÉDERM VOLBELLA® XC, dryness was also reported. For JUVÉDERM VOLUMA® XC, side effects were predominantly moderate in severity, with duration of 2 to 4 weeks; for JUVÉDERM® Ultra XC , JUVÉDERM® Ultra Plus XC, or JUVÉDERM VOLLURE™ XC, they were mostly mild or moderate in severity, with duration of 14 days or less; and for JUVÉDERM VOLBELLA® XC, they were predominantly mild or moderate, with duration of 30 days or less.
To report an adverse reaction with any product in the JUVÉDERM® Collection, please call Allergan at 1-800-433-8871. Please visit JuvedermDFU.com for more information.
Products in the JUVÉDERM® Collection are available by prescription only.
KYBELLA® (deoxycholic acid) injection 10 mg/mL Important Information
KYBELLA® (deoxycholic acid) injection is indicated for improvement in the appearance of moderate to severe convexity or fullness associated with submental fat in adults.
The safe and effective use of KYBELLA® for the treatment of subcutaneous fat outside the submental region has not been established and is not recommended.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
KYBELLA® is contraindicated in the presence of infection at the injection sites.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Marginal Mandibular Nerve Injury
Cases of marginal mandibular nerve injury, manifested as an asymmetric smile or facial muscle weakness, were reported in 4% of subjects in the clinical trials; all cases resolved spontaneously (range 1-298 days, median 44 days). KYBELLA® should not be injected into or in close proximity to the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve.
Dysphagia occurred in 2% of subjects in the clinical trials in the setting of administration-site reactions, eg, pain, swelling, and induration of the submental area; all cases of dysphagia resolved spontaneously (range 1-81 days, median 3 days). Avoid use of KYBELLA® in patients with current or prior history of dysphagia as treatment may exacerbate the condition.
In clinical trials, 72% of subjects treated with KYBELLA® experienced hematoma/bruising. KYBELLA® should be used with caution in patients with bleeding abnormalities or who are currently being treated with antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy as excessive bleeding or bruising in the treatment area may occur.
Risk of Injecting Into or in Proximity to Vulnerable Anatomic Structures
To avoid the potential of tissue damage, KYBELLA® should not be injected into or in close proximity (1 cm-1.5 cm) to salivary glands, lymph nodes, and muscles.
Injection Site Alopecia
Cases of injection site alopecia have been reported with administration of KYBELLA®. Onset and duration may vary among individuals and may persist. Consider withholding subsequent treatments until resolution.
Injection Site Ulceration and Necrosis
Injections that are too superficial into the dermis may result in skin ulceration and necrosis. Cases of injection site ulceration and necrosis have been reported with administration of KYBELLA®. Do not administer KYBELLA® into affected area until complete resolution.
The most commonly reported adverse reactions in the pivotal clinical trials were: injection site edema/swelling, hematoma/bruising, pain, numbness, erythema, and induration.
Please see KYBELLA® full Prescribing Information.
LATISSE® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.03% Important Information
LATISSE® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.03% is indicated to treat hypotrichosis of the eyelashes by increasing their growth, including length, thickness, and darkness.
Important Safety Information
Contraindications: LATISSE® is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to bimatoprost or to any of the ingredients.
Warnings and Precautions: In patients using LUMIGAN® (bimatoprost ophthalmic solution) or other prostaglandin analogs for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), the concomitant use of LATISSE® may interfere with the desired reduction in IOP. Patients using prostaglandin analogs including LUMIGAN® for IOP reduction should only use LATISSE® after consulting with their physician and should be monitored for changes to their intraocular pressure.
Increased iris pigmentation has occurred when bimatoprost solution was administered. Patients should be advised about the potential for increased brown iris pigmentation, which is likely to be permanent.
Bimatoprost has been reported to cause pigment changes (darkening) to periorbital pigmented tissues and eyelashes. The pigmentation is expected to increase as long as bimatoprost is administered, but has been reported to be reversible upon discontinuation of bimatoprost in most patients.
There is the potential for hair growth to occur in areas where LATISSE® solution comes in repeated contact with skin surfaces. Apply LATISSE® only to the skin of the upper eyelid margin at the base of the eyelashes.
LATISSE® solution should be used with caution in patients with active intraocular inflammation (eg, uveitis) because the inflammation may be exacerbated. LATISSE®should be used with caution in aphakic patients, in pseudophakic patients with a torn posterior lens capsule, or in patients with known risk factors for macular edema.
Adverse Reactions: The most frequently reported adverse reactions were eye pruritus, conjunctival hyperemia, skin hyperpigmentation, ocular irritation, dry eye symptoms, and periorbital erythema. These reactions occurred in less than 4% of patients.
Postmarketing Experience: The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of LATISSE®: dry skin of the eyelid and/or periocular area, eye swelling, eyelid edema, hypersensitivity (local allergic reactions), lacrimation increased, madarosis and trichorrhexis (temporary loss of a few eyelashes to loss of sections of eyelashes, and temporary eyelash breakage, respectively), periorbital and lid changes associated with a deepening of the eyelid sulcus, rash (including macular and erythematous), skin discoloration (periorbital), and vision blurred.
Please see LATISSE® full Prescribing Information.
Natrelle® Breast Implants Important Information
Natrelle® Breast Implants are indicated for women for the following:
- Breast augmentation for women at least 22 years old for silicone-filled implants.
Breast augmentation for women at least 18 years old for saline-filled implants.
Breast augmentation includes primary breast augmentation to increase breast size, as well as revision surgery to correct or improve the result of a primary breast augmentation surgery.
- Breast reconstruction. Breast reconstruction includes primary reconstruction to replace breast tissue that has been removed due to cancer or trauma or that has failed to develop properly due to a severe breast abnormality. Breast reconstruction also includes revision surgery to correct or improve the result of a primary breast reconstruction surgery.
IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
Breast implant surgery should not be performed in:
- Women with active infection anywhere in their body.
- Women with existing cancer or precancer of their breast who have not received adequate treatment for those conditions.
- Women who are currently pregnant or nursing.
Breast implants are not lifetime devices or necessarily a one-time surgery.
- Avoid damage during surgery: Care should be taken to avoid the use of excessive force and to minimize handling of the implant. Use care when using surgical instruments in proximity with the breast implant. For more information, please see the full Directions for Use.
Safety and effectiveness have not been established in patients with the following:
- Autoimmune diseases (eg, lupus and scleroderma).
- A compromised immune system (eg, currently receiving immunosuppressive therapy).
- Planned chemotherapy following breast implant placement.
- Planned radiation therapy to the breast following breast implant placement.
- Conditions or medications that interfere with wound healing and blood clotting.
- Reduced blood supply to breast tissue.
- Clinical diagnosis of depression or other mental health disorders, including body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders. Please discuss any history of mental health disorders prior to surgery. Patients with a diagnosis of depression, or other mental health disorders, should wait until resolution or stabilization of these conditions prior to undergoing breast implantation surgery.
Key adverse events are reoperation, implant removal with or without replacement, implant rupture with silicone-filled implants, implant deflation with saline-filled implants, and capsular contracture Baker Grade III/IV.
Other potential adverse events that may occur with breast implant surgery include: asymmetry, breast pain, breast/skin sensation changes, capsular calcification, delayed wound healing, hematoma, hypertrophic scarring/scarring, implant extrusion, implant malposition, implant palpability/visibility, infection, nipple complications, redness, seroma, swelling, tissue/skin necrosis, wrinkling/rippling.
For more information see the full Directions for Use at www.allergan.com/labeling/usa.htm. To report a problem with Natrelle® Breast Implants, please call Allergan at 1-800-433-8871.
Natrelle® Breast Implants are available by prescription only.
CAUTION: Women should not use Retinol Complex, Illuminize Peel®, Rejuvenize Peel™, or Vitalize Peel® if they are pregnant, lactating, or planning to become pregnant.
Sunburn alert: The AHA/BHA Exfoliating Cleanser and AHA/BHA Cream in the Lytera® 2.0 Advanced Pigment Correcting System contain an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) that may increase the skin’s sensitivity to the sun and particularly the possibility of sunburn. Patients should use a sunscreen, wear protective clothing, and limit sun exposure while using these products (or this system) and for a week following.
IMPORTANT! SUNSCREEN IS REQUIRED TO OPTIMIZE AND MAINTAIN THE RESULTS OF USING THE LYTERA® 2.0 PIGMENT CORRECTING SERUM.
Most SkinMedica® products are intended to meet the FDA’s definition of a cosmetic product, an article applied to the human body to cleanse, beautify, promote attractiveness, and alter appearances. These SkinMedica® products are not intended to be drug products that diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or condition. These products have not been approved by the FDA, and the statements have not been evaluated by the FDA.
SkinMedica® Acne System, Acne Treatment Lotion, Purifying Foaming Wash, and Purifying Toner are over-the-counter drug products that are formulated and marketed pursuant to the FDA governing regulations set forth at 21 CFR § 333.301 et seq.
SkinMedica® TOTAL DEFENSE + REPAIR Broad Spectrum/PA++++ Sunscreens (SPF 34, SPF 34 Tinted, and SPF 50+) and Essential Defense Broad Spectrum/PA++++ Sunscreens (Everyday Clear SPF 47, Mineral Shield Tinted SPF 32, and Mineral Shield SPF 35) are over-the-counter drug products that are formulated and marketed pursuant to the FDA’s governing regulations set forth at 21 CFR § 352.
The PA rating system is used in Japan to classify UVA protection and is not an FDA requirement on sunscreens sold in the U.S.